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Understanding Classes in JavaScript: A Beginner’s Guide

In the world of JavaScript, the introduction of classes in ECMAScript 2015 (also known as ES6) t offered a more intuitive and structured approach to creating objects and dealing with inheritance, bringing JavaScript closer in line with other object-oriented programming (OOP) languages. This guide will delve into the basics of using classes in JavaScript, complemented by a fun and illustrative example to cement your understanding.

The Basics of Classes in JavaScript

At its core, a class in JavaScript is a blueprint for creating objects. It encapsulates data for the object and methods to operate on that data. Before ES6, JavaScript relied on prototype-based inheritance – a useful but often verbose and confusing system for beginners. Classes in JavaScript are, in essence, syntactic sugar over this prototype-based inheritance, providing a cleaner and more straightforward syntax.

Defining a Class

A class is defined using the class keyword, followed by the class name and a pair of curly braces. Inside these braces, we can define a constructor and a variety of methods.

class MyClass {
  constructor() {
    // Initialisation code

  myMethod() {
    // Method code

The constructor method is called automatically when a new instance of the class is created. It is typically used for setting up the initial state of the object.

Creating Instances

To create an instance of a class, we use the new keyword followed by the class name and parentheses.

const myInstance = new MyClass();

The Magic Hat

To illustrate the power and simplicity of using classes in JavaScript, let’s create an example: a Magic Hat that produces random animals every time we reach into it.

class MagicHat {
  constructor() {
    this.animals = ['Rabbit', 'Dragon', 'Unicorn'];

  pullOutAnimal() {
    const randomIndex = Math.floor(Math.random() * this.animals.length);
    return this.animals[randomIndex];

const myMagicHat = new MagicHat();
console.log(myMagicHat.pullOutAnimal()); // Outputs a random animal

In this example, the MagicHat class has a constructor that initializes an array of animals. The pullOutAnimal method randomly selects an animal from this array and returns it. Every time you call myMagicHat.pullOutAnimal(), you simulate the magical experience of pulling a new animal out of the hat.

Advantages of Using Classes

  1. Readability: Classes provide a clear and concise syntax for creating objects and handling inheritance, making your code easier to read and maintain.
  2. Encapsulation: By encapsulating data and methods within a class, you can create more modular and reusable code.
  3. Inheritance: Classes make implementing inheritance simpler, enabling you to create a hierarchy of classes that inherit properties and methods from one another.


Classes in JavaScript offer a robust way to create objects and manage inheritance, Whether you’re creating magic hats or more conventional software components, mastering classes will significantly enhance your JavaScript programming skills. As you continue to explore JavaScript, remember that the key to learning is experimentation and practice.

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